Futur antérieur anglais (cours complet)
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Le futur perfect anglais (appelé aussi futur parfait simple) est employé pour parler d’actions qui seront finis dans le futur avant un un événement précis. En français, c’est le futur antérieur.
- She will have finished work before 7pm. (= Elle aura fini de travailler avant 19h.)
- The movie will already have started by the time we get there. (= Le film aura déjà commencé quand nous arriverons.)
- Tomorrow evening he will have left. (= Demain soir il sera parti.)
1/ Formation du futur perfect anglais
Sujet + WILL HAVE + Verbe (participe passé)
- Affirmative: I will have finished
- Négative: I will not (= I won’t) have finished
- Interrogative: Will I have finished?
2/ Utilisation du futur perfect anglais
On emploi le future perfect pour raconter:
Un événement réalisé avant un événement futur:
Quelque chose va se passer avant une autre action dans le futur, ou avant un moment spécifique du futur (tomorrow, next week, before…, by 3pm…)
Note: on utilise le present simple pour les points de référence:
- How many places will you have visited by the time you turn 40?
- By the time he gets home, I will have eaten the entire cake.
- I will have finished my exam by 1pm.
- He will have cleaned up the house before they move in.
- I will have finished this job before the deadline.
La durée de certains événements avant une date ou événement futur:
- I will have known Tina for ten years in October.
- Neil will have lived in Melbourne for 10 years by 2014.
- I will have been in Paris for seven months by the time I leave.
- By Tuesday, Simon will have had my computer for a month.
la conviction que quelque chose vient d’arriver:
- There’s no point in going to the party. The movie will have started by now. (= I’m sure the movie has already started)
- The taxi will have left by now. (= I’m sure the taxi has left)
- My mother will have arrived in Tokyo by now. (I’m sure my mother has arrived in Tokyo)
On peut employer ‘going to’ à la place de ‘will’, ça signifie la même chose:
- The taxi will have left by now. = The taxi is going to have left by now.
Pas de futur perfect avec when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc.
On emploie le present perfect à la place:
- He is going to watch a movie when he
will havefinished to clean his room. FAUX
- He is going to watch a movie when he has finished to clean his room. CORRECT
La forme active / passive:
- Active: Sam will have fixed the computer before friday.
- Passive: The computer will have been fixed by Sam before friday.
Quelques expressions de temps courantes au futur perfect:
next month / until / till / by / by the time / before / by tomorrow / at 7 o’clock
- She will have retired by the end of this month.
- We will have finished our homework before 8 o’clock.